Max's Output

Длинный хвост

with 47 comments

Я решил описать концепцию, которая произвела на меня наибольшее впечатление в 2006 году. Это феномен Длинного хвоста (long tail) в контексте Интернет бизнес моделей.

В общем феномен длинного хвоста можно описать следующим образом: маловостребованные вещи (или малозначительные события) в сумме являются более востребованными (или дают больший эффект), чем популярные вещи (или значительные события). Для того, чтобы понять откуда взялся термин длинных хвост, посмотрите на график и представьте, что это распределение востребованности вещей, упорядоченных в порядке убывания востребованности. Мало востребованные вещи образуют длинный хвост, интеграл по которому, может быть больше чем по востребованным вещам. В контексте бизнеса это означает, например, следующие: в сумме небестселлеров продают больше, чем бестселлеров. Таким образом, если суметь собрать достаточно большое число маловостребованных товаров (то есть построит из них длинный хвост), то это может дать существенный экономический эффект. В контексте создания бизнес моделей феномен длинного хвоста был впервые рассмотрен Крисом Андерсоном (Chris Anderson) в публикации в журнале Wired в 2004. Несколько месяцев назад он же написал книгу, посвященную анализу этого феномена.

Построение длинного хвоста стало возможным, главным образом, благодаря широкому распространению Интернет, поскольку Интернет снимает многие физические ограничения. Например, в реальном книжном магазине можно продавать только бестселлеры, поскольку существую объективные физические ограничения на размер книжных полок, в то время как Интернет магазин не имеет таких ограничений и может предлагать сколь угодно широкий ассортимент. Наиболее часто обсуждаемым примером (экономически) успешного построения длинного хвоста является Интернет-магазин Amazon. Известно, что около половины дохода эта компания получает от реализации продуктов из длинного хвоста. Другим знаковым примером является рекламные программы компании Google (такие как adword и adsense). Эти программы позволяют большому числу мелких рекламодателей (для которых реклама в традиционных средствах массовой информации, таких как телевидение, газеты и журналы, была практически недоступна) проводить свои рекламные компании в Интернет. То есть опять же, традиционные средства массовой информации имеют физические ограничения эфирного времени или максимально допустимого числа страниц, которые намного менее существенны в Интернет. А, кроме того, цена доставки информации до конечного потребителя существенно ниже для Интернет-компаний, чем для традиционных масс медиа.

Возможность построения длинного хвоста при помощи Интернет является новой возможностью, которая, как кажется, еще не исчерпана и может быть реализована во многих областях.

Written by maxgrinev

January 9, 2007 at 12:18 pm

47 Responses

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